This pattern is particularly true for allopolyploids, which originate from a cross between genetically distinct parents often representing different species; in such cases, the biological changes seen after polyploidization may not reflect the effects of genome doubling per se, but rather the effect of hybridization between distantly related progenitors (4).

dating origins polyploidy events-36

As noted by Stebbins (13), “polyploidy has been important in the diversification of species and genera within families, but not in the origin of the families and orders themselves,” implying that polyploidy is only a minor force in diversification (see also ref. Surveys of angiosperms and ferns have found no evidence for increased speciation after polyploidization (15, 16), supporting Stebbins's hypothesis.

However, because of the large scale of the analyses, these studies necessarily had to rely on inference of polyploidization events from chromosome numbers.

Ancient polyploidy correlates with major land-plant radiations (3) and the origins of orders, large families, and major clades (4–7) although, in many cases, sharp changes in diversification rates are delayed for millions of years after the polyploidization event (1).

This phylogenetic pattern has led to the hypothesis that polyploidy causes or promotes diversification.

Good mechanistic reasons support such a hypothesis.

Studies of naturally occurring and synthetic polyploids find changes in gene expression, gene loss, release of transposons, and changes in morphology and physiology immediately after polyploidy (4, 8–12).

Their research was published in the The genetically modified (GM) tomatoes also survived for days without refrigeration, which scientists say is great news for farmers in developing nations; India, for example, loses almost 40 percent of its annual produce of fruits and vegetables to spoilage during transportation.

The genetically-modified tomato would have to pass a series of field trials, including animal safety tests, before it can be considered for commercial cultivation.

Whole-genome duplications precede the origins of many major clades (e.g., angiosperms, Brassicaceae, Poaceae), suggesting that polyploidy drives diversification.